God is beautiful and He loves beauty

Technical Glossary


Religious scholars of Islam.  

Ulu Cami 

Turkish for 'Friday Mosque' or 'Great Mosque'. 

Umayyads (661-750 A.D.)  

The first dynasty of Islam which was founded by Mu‘awiyya ibn Abu Sufyan (r. 661-80 A.D.), who was the governor of Syria after the Syrian conquest. He came to rule the entire Muslim world from his capital Damascus, which became a main cultural center of the Muslim world. Mu‘awiyya used the already existing Byzantium base of shipyards to build a strong Arab navy. The greatest caliphs of the Umayyads were Mu‘awiya, Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705 A.D.), Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (r. 717-20 A.D.) and Hisham (r. 724-744 A.D). Their caliphate fell in 750 A.D. because of the opposition of the Arab tribes in Iraq and others in Medina. They were overthrown by a revolution that began in Khurasan, led by Abu Muslim who gained the caliphate for the Abbasids. Most of the Umayyads were killed during these happenings, one of those who survived was Abd al-Rahman who fled to North Africa and reinstituted the Umayyads in Spain. Their architecture was heavily influenced by Byzantine norms. Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan built the dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, in 691 A.D., the first monument in Islam. Its plan is derived from Byzantine mausolea and its decoration, the mosaic on its inner walls, are classical in inspiration. Umayyad caliphs built several desert palaces, all similar to Roman forts. The bath at Qusayr Amra is the typical Roman bath. The mural paintings adorning its walls are all of Byzantine inspiration. The mosaic floors in Khirbat al-Mafjar are yet another classical influence. Other influences from the east played a role, but not as strong as those of Byzantium. The façade of Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi shows Sasanian influences on the sculpted figures.  


Mamluk position of tutor, who was also responsible for managing the sultan's private issues, including his residence and treasury affairs. 


Citron or ethrog and is used to describe the shapes of decorative elements.