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Technical Glossary


Refers to the frieze beneath the ceiling in Mamluk architecture.  






Persian for prayer. See Salat


Literally means 'copied'. It is a type of calligraphy that was developed by the wazir Ibn Muqala, and is one of the most widespread styles. This rounded, clearly written script is considered one of the six 'classical hands'. 

Nasrids (1232-1492 A.D.) 

This was the last Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain, lasting from 1238 A.D. when it was founded by Muhammad I ibn Nasr, until 1492A.D. when it fell to the Christians. It was following the defeat of Almohads when many Andalusian Muslim cities fell into Christian hands, that the Muslim general Muhammad I ibn Nasr rose to power and was able to control Granada. Although Muhammad I ibn Nasr, was able to expand the Granada region further south, he still created peace treaties with the Christian kings, and paid tribute to Ferdinand I of Castile. The Nasrid dynasty continued until Granada fell to the Christians in 1492 A.D. The Nasrids were the patrons of one of the most celebrated Islamic buildings, Alhambra, which was their main palace. In general, the Nasrid court in Granada was a viable cultural center. Ibn Khaldun was a diplomat in the court of Muhammad VI.  


A type of calligraphy developed in Iran and known also as the farsi script or ta‘liq. This script is composed of elongated sweeping diagonals and short ascending strokes. Popularly used for non-Qur'anic Iranian manuscripts, this type of calligraphy was also extensively used by the Ottomans on their buildings and in their manuscripts. Calligraphers who excelled at this script included Sultan Ali al-Mashhadi, Mir Ali and Mir ‘Imad.